Winners and Losers: Part 9 -
David: A Man Who Suffered Judgment for Removing His “Armor”
Kathy's Sunday School Lessons Written for Young Boys and Girls by Kathryn Capoccia
© Copyright Kathryn Capoccia 2001. This file may be freely copied,
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David was one of the most remarkable Old Testament saints in that he is consistently referred to as “a man after God’s own heart” (1SA 13:14). It was his heart’s devotion to God that led to his anointing as king and which would elevate this shepherd and youngest son of Jesse to the throne of Israel some years later. Every scriptural reference to his early life marks his rising success story, culminating in his ascension to the throne of Israel (which he would hold for 40 years: 2SA 5:4). But his story does not end there, unfortunately. David also fell into gross sin with Bathsheba, came under judgment, and ultimately, repented of his transgressions and was restored, albeit with devastating consequences remaining from his sins. From the perspective of history we see that his life took a sharp downward turn from the time of his sin; his life is marked from that time onward by troubles, right up until the time of his death at the age of 70 (2SA 5:4 ; 1KI 2:11). Some questions arise from his life, the answers of which can help us in our own spiritual walks. First, how did David become a man who so pleased God that He promised him that his heirs would always have the throne of Israel (2SA 7:16)? And, secondly, how did he come to fall so far from grace that he committed adultery with Bathsheba and murdered her husband? Let’s open our Bibles to 1SA 16 and begin our study of David’s life there, focusing especially on those two areas.
I. Who Was He?
A. What was his name? His name was David, “beloved one”.
B. Who were his people? He was a Jew.
1. (RUT 4:18-22; 1CH 2:5-16; MAT 1:3-6; LUK 3:31-33) his family line was: Judah, Perez, Hezron, Ram, Ammiadab, Nashon, Salmon, Boaz, Obed, Jesse.
2. (1SA 16:1) his father was: Jesse of Bethlehem.
3. his brothers were:
a. (1SA 16:6-9): Eliab
b. (1SA 16:6-9): Abinadab.
c. (1SA 16:6-9): Shammah.
d. (1CH 2:13-16): Nethanel.
e. (1CH 2:13-16): Raddai.
f. (1CH 2:13-16): Ozrem.
g. (1CH 2:16): Zeruiah.
h. (1CH 2:17): Abigail.
C. Where and when did he live? He lived in Israel between approximately 1040 B.C. and 970 B.C.?
D. What were his wives’ names? Their children’s names?
1. (1SA 18:27): Michal- childless (1SA 6:23).
2. (1SA 25:42; 1CH 3:1): Abigail- Daniel.
3. (1SA 25:43; 1CH 3:1): Ahinoam- Amnon.
4. (1CH 3:2; 1CH 3:2): Maacah- Absolom.
5. (1CH 3:2; 1CH 3:2): Haggith- Adonijah.
6. (1CH 3:3; 1CH 3:3): Abital- Shephatiah.
7. (1CH 3:3; 1CH 3:3): Eglah- Ithream.
8. (1CH 3:5; 2SA 5:14; 1CH 3:5): Bathsheba- Shimea/Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon.
II. What Did He Do?
A. He was “a man after God’s own heart”
“the LORD has sought out a man after His own heart and appointed him leader of his people” (1SA 13:14)
1. His godliness
“Man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart” (1SA 16:7).
a. his devotion to God
1) he knew the fear of God (PSA 32:11, 36:1,2
2) he loved God (PSA 18:1)
3) he worshipped God (PSA 29, 122, 108:1; 1CH 21:24)
a) meditation on God’s word (PSA 63:6, 77:6,12, 119)
b) prayer (the psalms are prayers; )
b. his walk of faith
1) he obeyed God
a) consecration (PSA 18:20,21)
i. holiness (PSA 34:12-14)
ii. fellowship (PSA 55:14)
iii. confession of sin (PSA 32:5)
iv. rejecting worthless things (PSA 101:3, 119:63)
b) wisdom (PSA 119:98)
i. wise speech (1SA 16:18)
ii. wise conduct (1SA 18:30)
2) he trusted God
a) bravery- deliverance from the bear and the lion (1SA 17:34-37)
b) confidence (PSA 27:1-3, 32:7, 34, 37, 108:12,13)
DON’T YOU SEE DAVID CLOTHED IN THE FULL ARMOR OF GOD FROM EPHESIANS CHAPTER 6?
2. His life of blessing
a. his anointing by Samuel (1SA 16:1-13)
b. his rise in power
1) becoming court musician/armor bearer (1SA 16:18-22)
2) triumphing over Goliath (1SA 17)
“Who is this uncircumcised Philistine that he should defy the armies of the living God” (1SA 17:26b).
3) forming a covenant with Jonathan (1SA 18:1-4; 2SA 9)
4) marrying into royalty (1SA 18: 17-28)
c. his protection from Saul/ Philistines (1SA 18:5-16, 17-30; 19:1-17-23; 20:1-42; 21:1-15; 22:6-23; 23:1-29; 26:1-27:2)
d. his ascending the throne
1) the throne of Judah (2SA 5:1-4)
2) the combined throne of Israel (2SA 5:1-4; 1CH 11:1-3)
e. his dealings with his enemies
1) war with the Philistines (2SA 5:6-10; 1CH 11:4-9)
2) peace with Tyre (2SA 5:11,12, 17-25
3) war with the Ammonites (2SA 10:1-19; 1CH 19:1-19)
B. He was a man under judgment
“the sword will never depart from your house, because you despised Me and took the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your own” (2SA 12:10)
1. His sins
a. falling away from a godly walk
1) disobedience- moving the ark in violation of the prescribed manner (2SA 6:1-8).
2) shirking his responsibility as commander-in-chief (2SA 11:1)
a) David sent Joab, his general, and the whole army to attack the Ammonites when good weather returned in the Spring, while he remained in Jerusalem.
b) It was the custom for kings to lead his troops into battle and “fight their battles” (1SA 8:20).
3) providing an opening for temptation (2SA 11:2,3)
a) David permitted licentiousness in himself.
i. David was accustomed to sexual excess with his multiple wives.
ii. David exhibited little sexual self-control: when he desired beautiful women he simply added them to his harem.
b) David coveted another man’s wife.
i. He saw Bathsheba bathing and did not turn away- instead he dwelled on the sight.
(It does not necessarily mean that Bathsheba was wanton because she bathed in her courtyard: the uncovered court of her home could have contained a spring and pool which would have afforded her convenience and privacy (except from those looking down into it); and the hour at which she was bathing, afternoon, was one when men were normally still at work (according to MAT 20:9 the normal work day ended at 5 PM).)
ii. He lusted after her and made inquiries to posses her.
iii. He learned she was married to one of the 39 “mighty men” soldiers, Uriah the Hittite (2SA 23:39).
b. succumbing to temptation
“after desire has conceived it brings forth sin” (JAS 1:15)
1) sinning with Bathsheba (2SA 11:4,5)
a) the act of adultery (2SA 11:4):
i. David’s lust led him to summon Bathsheba to the palace, even though she was a married woman.
ii. David slept with Bathsheba and knowingly committed adultery.
b) the aftermath:
i. Bathsheba returned to her home after purifying herself with water (LEV 15:18).
ii. Bathsheba became pregnant with David’s child and notified him of it.
2) compounding the sin (2SA 11:6-27)
a) David practiced deception to cover his sin: he tried twice to entice Uriah home so that he would believe that Bathsheba’s pregnancy was by him.
b) David ordered Uriah’s death to avoid the consequences of his sin with Bathsheba (LEV 10:10).
i. Bathsheba mourned for Uriah.
ii. David married Bathsheba.
iii. Bathsheba bore a son to David.
3) confessing his sins (2SA 12:1-13; PSA 51)
a) God confronted David through Nathan the Prophet
i. Nathan exposed David as the selfish and murderous man that he was.
ii. God pronounced judgment upon David’s sin (2SA 12:9-12).
“’Now, therefore, the sword will never depart from your house, because you despised Me and took the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your own.’ This is what the LORD says: ’Out of your own household I am going to bring calamity upon you. Before your very eyes I will take your wives and give them to one who is close to you, and he will lie with your wives in broad daylight. You did it in secret, but I will do this thing in broad daylight before all Israel’.”
WHY WOULD GOD BRING SUCH A DEVASTATING JUDGMENT UPON DAVID?
(2SA 12:7-9) AS HEAD OF STATE HE BORE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF SETTING A GOOD EXAMPLE, DAVID HAD ENJOYED TREMENDOUS PRIVILEDGE WHICH HE DESPISED BY HIS SIN, AND DAVID’S OPEN SIN BROUGHT DISHONOR ON GOD (2SA 12:14).
b) David repented
i. his bad conscience urged him to confess his sins (PSA 51).
ii. David did confess his sins before Nathan.
iii. David was forgiven (2SA 12:13b,14).
c) David began to bear the consequences of his sin-
i. God began fulfilling His curse by killing David’s newborn son.
ii. David comforted Bathsheba in her grief (2SA 12:24).
2. His life “under the sword”
a. family troubles
1) Tamar’s rape by Amnon (2SA 12:24,25, 13:1-22)
2) Absolom’s revenge and banishment (2SA 13:23-29, 14:1-33)
(David did not follow the Law and punish his sons right)
1) Absolom’s revolt (2SA 15:1-37- 17:29)
2) Sheba’s revolt (2SA 20:1-22)
3) Adonijah’s revolt (1KI 1:1,2, 11:1; 1CH 29:22b-30)
c. sin with the census (2SA 24:1-25; 1CH 21:1-30)
III. What Can We Learn From Him?
A. Successful Christianity is a matter of current obedience; no matter how well we walked in the past if we don’t continue to obey and trust God we will open ourselves up to temptations which may have devastating consequences.
B. God will forgive us of any sin we commit, no matter how grievous, if we confess it and forsake it, yet the consequences of that act may continue until long afterward.
C. Leaders and teachers bear a great responsibility to be true and will be judged under a stricter standard than others (JAM 3:1).
D. God’s grace is sufficient for any trial (PHI 4:13).
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